Former Director of the Federal Security Service (FSB)
Nikolai Patrushev (Николай Платонович Патрушев) was born July 11, 1951 in Leningrad, now St. Petersburg.
In 1974 he graduated from Leningrad Shipbuilding Institute, and then worked as an engineer in the design office of the institute.
In 1974-1975 he attended the Higher courses of studies at the KGB under the USSR Councils of Ministers in Minsk. From 1975 he worked in the counterintelligence subdivisions in the KGB Directorate for the Leningrad Region, where he got acquainted with Vladimir Putin.
While there Patrushev had the following positions: junior criminal investigation officer, criminal investigation officer, chief of municipal division, deputy chief of regional division, chief of service for combat against contraband and corruption.
Patrushev completed his year-long studies for advancement in qualification at the Higher School of the KGB.
In June 1992, Patrushev was named as the Minister of Security of the Republic of Karelia. In June 1994 he was transferred to Moscow and until 1998 was in charge within directorates of the Federal Service of Counterespionage (FSK), later as the Federal Security Service (FSB). Following the resignation of FSB Director Sergei Stepashin, Patrushev got a less senior post of deputy chief of the Organisation and Inspection Department of the FSB.
From May to August 1998 he was chief of the Control Directorate of the Presidential Staff. From August to October 1998 he was Deputy Chief of the Presidential Staff; in October 1998 he was appointed Deputy Director of the FSB and chief of the Directorate for Economic Security. In 1999 he was made First Deputy Director of the FSB.
On August 9, 1999 Patrushev was appointed Director of the FSB, by Boris Yeltsin's Presidential decree, replacing Vladimir Putin. Patrushev would remain in this post until May 2008. In September 1999 he was elected chairman of the Council of Directors of Security and Special Service Organs in the CIS countries; in November of the same year he was made member of the Security Council of Russia.
A month after his appointment to the post of FSB Director, a series of large-scale terrorist attacks occurred across Russia (explosions in apartment blocks in Buynaksk, Dagestan, in Moscow and in Volgodonsk, Rostov Region). Those declared responsible for the attacks were Chechen separatists. Such attacks were the basis for the initiation of the Second Chechen War. It was revealed by some media sources that the FSB itself was involved in the instigation of the attacks.
In 2001 former FSB official Alexander Litvinenko with historian and legal expert Yuri Felshtinsky published the work "Blowing up Russia: Terror from within" in which the authors accused the FSB and Patrushev personally of organizing the explosions of September 1999.
During the ensuing years, the Chechen separatists operated not only on the war front in Chechnya, but also in civilian areas. The following were among the assaults on civilians: an explosion in an underground walkway near the Pushkinskaya metro station in central Moscow (2000), an explosion in Kaspiysk, Dagestan during Victory Day celebrations (2002), the Nord-Ost theater siege in Moscow (2002), an explosion of a bus transporting employees of the Mozdoksk airdrome (2003), terrorist attacks at the Krylya Rock Music Festival in Moscow (2003), an explosion on a commuter train from Kislovodsk to Mineralnye Vody (2003), an explosion in a wagon of a Moscow metro train travelling between Paveletskaya and Avtozavodskaya stations (2004), air explosions on Tu-134 plane bound for Volgograd and on Tu-154 plane bound for Sochi (2004), an explosion at the Rizhskaya metro station in Moscow (2004), the Beslan school siege (2004). In January 2001 Patrushev headed the Emergency Response Center on the management of counterterrorist operations in the North Caucasian Region (he was in this post until August 2003). During his time in this position, large terrorist attacks took place in Chechnya itself. Patrushev retained his position as FSB Director in spite of the fact that the FSB did not prevent these crimes from taking place, with critics continually demanding his resignation.
At the same time, since 1999, the department headed by Patrushev repeatedly reported on the successes in the criminal investigation of the terrorist acts in Russia. According to their research, those responsible for the majority of the crimes - members of Chechen separatist groups - have either been convicted, punished or killed. Moreover, since 2000, the FSB has carried a series of operations to extirpate the leaders of Chechen separatists and insurgents, such as Ibn Al-Khattab, Aslan Aliyevich Maskhadov, Abu Omar As-Seif and Shamil Salmanovich Basayev, all of which the FSB named as advocates of a large number of terrorist acts in Russia.
In February 2006 Patrushev became the head of the National Antiterrorist Committee (NAK), used as a means through which insurgents can enter into negotiations with local and federal powers. According to the FSB, at the beginning of 2007 some 500 members of illegally armed groupings benefitted from an offered amnesty.
In May 2008 Patrushev left his post as Director of the FSB (he is replaced by Alexander Bortnikov) and became the Secretary of the Security Council of Russia.
Patrushev holds the ranks of Russian Army General. He is of a Doctor of Legal Sciences (Ph.D). For the successes in the Chechen War in 2003, he was bestowed the title of Hero of the Russian Federation. He has also been decorated with the honors "For Services Before the Fatherland" of the 1st Degree, "For Military Services", and is the bearer of seven Medals. He is also the holder of honors and medals from other countries.
In January 2007, Patrushev joined the expedition of polar explorer Arthur Chilingarov that flew on two helicopters to Antarctica and visited the South Pole and the Amundsen-Scott station.
Patrushev is married and has two sons. The younger son Andrei in July 2003 graduated from the FSB Academy and worked in the Industrial Department of the FSB. In September 2006 he was appointed as an adviser to the Director of Rosneft Igor Sechin. The older son Dmitry in September 2007 was made vice-president of VTB Bank.
Security Council of the Russian Federation, Webpage (In Russian)